Journalist Elbert Hubbard was born in Bloomington, Illinois, in 1865. A founder of the Art and Crafts movement community Roycroft, in East Aurora, New York, Hubbard acted as publisher and editor of two popular magazines, The Philistine and The Fra. Hubbard died aboard the ship Lusitania in 1915, after it was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine. He was en route to Europe, on a trip to encourage the end of World War 1. His famous motivational essay A Message to Garcia was made into a silent film by Thomas Edison in 1916 and a "talkie" by George Marshall in 1936. Copies were provided for all U.S. Marines and U.S. Navy enlistees during both World Wars.